Exploring NTFS Permissions

Windows includes several built-in user accounts to provide you with initial access to a computer.

Computer User account provides for the following permissions:
Administrator:  This group in the permission account has complete administrative access to computer resources.

This is the most powerful account on a computer and should be protected with strong password. In some situation you may also considering renaming this account.

Power Users:  This group has fewer access privileges than administrators, but more access privileges than the standard users. Power users might be able to install most software and updates, but they will be restricted from making changes that affect security or the core operating system. This account is available only in window XP.
Standard User: Access to use most of the computing software on the computer. However higher permission is required to uninstall or install software and hardware. This account also limits the configuration of security settings, operational settings, and deletion of necessary files. This account is sometimes referred to as a non-privileged user account.
t: This group has limited computer access to individual without a user account. By default, the Guest account is disabled when you install the operating system. You enable this account only if you want to permit users to log on as a guest.
Now that we have known that permission is a security setting that determines the level of access a user or group account has to a particular resources. Permission therefore can be associated with a variety of resources such as files, printers, shared folders and network directory database. Permission can typically be configured to allow different levels of privileges, or to deny privileges to users who should not access a resources.
Right and permission can be assigned to individual user account. However, this is an inefficient security practice, because so many permission assignments might be duplicated for user with similar roles and because individual user’s roles and needs can change frequently. It is more efficient to create groups of users with common needs, and then assign the right and permission to the user groups. As the need to individual user changes, the user can be placed in a group with appropriate security configuration.
On widows operating system, file-level security is supported on drives that are formatted to use the window NT file system NTFS. This permission can be applied either to folders or to individual files. NTFS permission on a folder is inherited by the files and subfolder within it. There are several levels of NTFS permissions which can be determined for example whether user can read files or run application, write to existing files; and modify, create or delete files.
There are five standard NTFS permission that you can assign to files.
Read :  Read files and views files attribution, ownership permission.
Write: overwrite files and change files attributions.
Read and Execute:  Run application and perform Read task.
Modify: Modify and delete file
Full control: change permission, take ownership, and perform all other tasks.
There are six NTFS permission you can assign to  folder or to drives.
List folder content: These include view names, attributes, and permission of subfolders in the folder, but only see names of files within the folders.
Read:  View names, attributes, permission and content of files and subfolders in the folder.
Write: create new files and subfolders in the folder, and change their attributes.
Read and execute: perform same function as read and list folders content task, as well as execute files.
Modify: Delete the folder and perform write to and read and execute tasks.
Full control:  Change permissions, take ownership, delete subfolders and files, and perform all other tasks.
Special permissions.

Each NTFS file permission is made up of several more granular permission called special permission. Standard permission are the most frequently assigned groups of permissions, special permissions provides you with a finer degree of control, for example , the standard read permission is made up of the following special permission.
List folders/read data.

Read attributes.
Read extended attributes.
Read permissions.
With this article I hope we can easily implement various types of security control in our windows operating system.
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